HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 18:16:59 GMT 深田咏美女扮男装视频

雾霾下的北京 40余家建筑业绿色施工

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 北京住建委通报空气重污染预警天气扬尘治理不达标企业 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

二手房市场刚需主导 降价成交仍是主流

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

近几十年来,很少有年份像2014年那样一开始就充满那么多的悲观情绪。对2014年的预测贯穿了一个主题,即这一年看起来与1914年相似得让人害怕。大多数学者的预测都是悲观和令人沮丧的,尤其是对于东亚。然而,虽然发生了许多可怕的事件——从马航MH17航班在乌克兰坠落,到尼日利亚数百女学生被绑架,以及“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(Isis)的崛起——但我们避免了全面的世界大战。现在,2014年已结束,没有重现1914年的悲剧。探究为什么这些学者预测错了(特别是他们认为亚洲存在冲突可能性的想法)或许是明智的。
在对入围的六本图书展开激烈辩论时,一名评委形容福特的书对该问题做出了“冷静而全面”的分析。英国《金融时报》主编兼此次评选委员会主席莱昂内尔巴伯(Lionel Barber)称《机器人的崛起:大规模失业的威胁与科技》“行文紧凑、研究深入,是公共政策辩论领域的又一佳作。”
单词immunity 联想记忆:
射箭、射击、铁人三项、现代五项ykXdDI-D*%c]。
相比之下,沪股市盈率为12.6倍。这反映出A股和H股的巨大价差(37%)。在经历2015年的跌宕起伏之前,二者价差更多时候处于20%以下——暗示H股指数大有上行空间。诚然,H股指数并不代表中国“新经济”中最好的部分,特别是银行股占比偏大。增长预测十分惨淡。然而,在预期已经如此糟糕的情况下,很难想象还能坏得哪里去。即使是受产能过剩困扰的地产业也在逐渐走出低迷。
据当地媒体报道,这一犯罪团伙设在广西壮族自治区首府南宁,他们向腐肉中注射化学药品,使其增重50%,这样每吨腐肉便可获利16000元人民币(合1750英镑)。
2018年,将会有更多商业领袖利用数字化、代际变动和多元化不断提高的强大结合,来精简企业层级结构,分配责任,转变他们所在的组织。

退出单向乐队之后,哈里·斯泰尔斯可以去自己想去的任何地方。
The world’s 100 biggest brands still command a significant premium over others and that value increased by 3 per cent to $3.4tn this year, according to the latest BrandZ rankings compiled by Millward Brown, the research agency.
The other issue with tanking is Philly, Phoenix, and Brooklyn are all bad teams. It's going to be hard to outflank those outfits.
[in'tendid]
新年英文祝福语大全Best wishes for the year to come! 恭贺新禧! Good luck in the year ahead! 祝吉星高照! May you come into a good fortune! 恭喜发财! Live long

Footnotes

  • 业内称调控预期加强 楼市升温步伐或被打断
  • ……太紧张,差点昏过去。

China’s bid to close its own Asia-Pac deal
反对:在某种程度上,《三块广告牌》分裂了美国观众,它赢得最佳影片的希望或许会因此破灭。
从周日起,各地的观众都在叹息该剧剧终,至少从Twitter名人的帖子来看是这样的。
美国电影学会选出了十部本年度最佳电影和电视剧。这些影片排名按字母表顺序排列,美国电影学院评审团选出这些影片的标准是促进了活动图像的艺术化、提升了美国艺术形式文化遗产的魅力、对观众和艺术者有所启发、在美国社会上占有一席之地。
Refugees from Syria, which has been torn apart by a five-year-old civil war that has left over 200,000 people dead and millions more displaced, account for half of all those counted, followed by refugees from two other war-torn countries, Afghanistan and Iraq.
……被要求向面试官简单介绍自己,结果她没有什么可说的。

发改委:我国有足够的政策空间来应对世界经济不确定性冲击

References

View Abstract